The early writings of Barry Barnes, as the co-founder of the Edinburgh School of sociology of scientific knowledge, are explored to bring out and to evaluate his main presuppositions and arguments. Barnes is highly critical of anthropologists’ conception of scientific knowledge, rationality, truth, and their asymmetrical explanatory approach towards different belief-systems. Likewise he rejects the prevalent View of science among sociologists of knowledge, and also their approach to explanation of knowledge or belief-adoption. His proposal is based on a Kuhnian model of science, and offers his own socio-causal explanatory scheme applicable to all beliefs and knowledge-claims. I have challenged the basis of his model of science and have tried to show that his use of Kuhn’s concepts of normal practice and paradigm is problematic, and that his idea of social causation of beliefs is highly problematic.